Before these are reviewed, several introductory points may be helpful:
(1) There are three basic shapes of vowels, which I will call “vertical vowels,” “horizontal vowels,” and “w-vowels.”
(2) Within the syllable, on must distinguish between an initial consonant (one before the vowel) and a final consonant (one after the vowel).
Three Major Rules :
1. A “vertical vowel” (one of the tall and narrow vowels: ㅏ ㅑ ㅐ ㅒ ㅓ ㅕ ㅔ ㅖ ㅣ) is always written to the right of the initial consonant in the syllable, as in English: 가 (ka).
2. A “horizontal vowel” (one of the wide and short vowels: ㅗ ㅛ ㅜ ㅠ ㅡ ) is always written under the initial consonant in the syllable, it always goes on the bottom: 노 (no).
3. If there is a final consonant in the syllable, it always goes on the bottom: 각 (kak), 녹 (nok).
Three Minor Rules :
The three minor rules are just special cases of the three major rules.
1. In Korean, the first character in a syllable is never a vowel. If the first sound in a syllable is a vowel, you must use “ㅇ” as a silent place-holder first (in the position of an initial consonant).
2. Each of the “w-vowels” (ㅘ ㅙ ㅝ ㅞ ㅚ ㅟ ㅢ ) is in fact simply a combination of a “horizontal vowel” and a “vertical vowel.” For example, notice that “ㅘ” (wa) is constructed from “ㅗ”(o) and “ㅏ”(a). As one might expect, the horizontal component of the “w-vowel” (fro example, the “ㅗ” part of “ㅘ”) goes under the initial consonant, and the vertical component (the “ㅏ” part of “ㅘ”) goes to the right: 과 (kwa), 와 (wa).
3. ‘Double consonants’ (ㅃ ㅉ ㄸ ㄲ ㅆ ㄳ ㄵ ㄶ ㄺ ㄻ ㄼ ㄽㄾ ㄿ ㅀ ㅄ ) are treated as single consonant. This is true regarless of whether they are in the initial position in the syllable (ㅃ ㅉ ㄸ ㄲ ㅆ) or in the final position (ㄲ ㄳ ㄵ ㄶ ㄺ ㄻ ㄼ ㄽ ㄾ ㄿ ㅀ ㅄ ㅆ).
As you may have noticed in the exmaples, each individual character changes shape in order to “fit well” with the other characters in the syllable; the overall shape of the syllable should be such that squares can be drawn around them of approximately equal size.
The three major and three minor rules are summarized in the following charts, through example:
Major rules: no final consonant vertical: 가 (ka) horizontal: 노 (no)
Major rules: no consonant vertical: 각 (kak) horizontal: 녹 (nok)
Minor rules: no final consonant vertical 아 (a), 까 (kka) horizontal 오 (o) w-vowel 과 (kwa), 와 (wa)
Minor rules: final consonant vertical 앙 (ang), 없 (up) horizontal 온 (on) 곽 (kwak), 왔(watt)
There are 14 consonants and 10 vowels and there are further 5 double consonants and 11 double vowels. In addition, there are 11 final double consonants in Korean. In this lesson, I am going to teach you how to pronounce each Korean alphabets so please become familiar with these beautiful geometric shapes.
ㄱ = g
ㄴ = n
ㄷ = d
ㄹ = l, r (ㄹ is a sound somewhere between l and r)
ㅁ = m
ㅂ = b
ㅅ = s
ㅇ = “no sound” when used as a first consonant, “ng” when used as a final consonant.
ㅈ = j
ㅊ = ch
ㅋ = k
ㅌ = t
ㅍ = p
ㅎ = h
ㅏ = a
ㅑ = ya
ㅓ = eo
ㅕ = yeo
ㅗ = o
ㅛ = yo
ㅜ = u
ㅠ = yu
ㅡ = eu
ㅣ = i
Double Consonants (쌍자음)
ㄲ = gg Click on the link to hear the difference between the sounds of ㄱ, ㄲ and ㅋ.
ㄸ = dd Note the difference in sounds; ㄷ, ㄸ and ㅌ.
ㅃ = bb Note the difference in sounds;ㅂ, ㅃ and ㅍ.
ㅆ = ss Note the difference in sounds; ㅅ and ㅆ
ㅉ = jj Note the difference in sounds; ㅈ, ㅉ and ㅊ
Double Vowels (쌍모음)
ㅐ = ae
ㅒ = yae (rarely used)
ㅔ = e
ㅖ = ye
ㅘ = wa
ㅙ = wae
ㅚ = oe
ㅝ = wo
ㅞ = we (rarely used)
ㅟ = wi
ㅢ = ui
Credit : Hangukman@LetsLearnKorean